There are two main types of socialization:
- Primary socialization. It is the one that the individual receives during the first years of life, in childhood and infancy, when relating to his closest environment, which, in most cases, is the family. The family circle is fundamental in the infant both for his cognitive and psychic development, as well as for his social development.
- Secondary socialization. It is the one that occurs after adolescence, when the individual is inserted into new social contexts, receives stimuli, and relates to various socializing agents. Some agents participating in this type of socialization are work environments, universities, and clubs.
What is tertiary socialization?
Some authors call “tertiary socialization,” the process of social reintegration applied to a person who has behaviors called “socially dangerous” or criminal.
The objective of this socialization is to readapt the person who has transgressed the norm socially, and this is achieved with the intervention of professionals who function as socializing agents. It is common for this socialization to occur in certain institutions, such as reformatories or prisons. The specialists who act as socializing agents are psychiatrists, social educators, doctors, and psychologists.
Importance of socialization
The socialization process is essential for the individual’s development, both socially, psychologically, and cognitively. It is a process that occurs from early childhood and throughout life and has benefits such as the transmission of cultural values, the development of language and speech, brain development, and emotional balance, among many others.
It is through socialization that the person knows and relates to other individuals, and this interaction has exchanged opinions, values, and beliefs that shape her personality. The influences a person can receive in the social environments in which he interacts can be positive and negative.
In addition, socialization is essential for the development of any society because, through this process, a town or region’s identity, customs, culture, and values are transmitted from generation to generation.