Computing – Culture and society – Technology

We explain what computing is and what its most important areas of study are. Also, the history of computing and evolution.

What is computing?

The concept of computation comes from the Latin computatĭo, which refers to computation, such as counting. Computing is the science in charge of studying systems, more precisely computers, that automatically manage information.

Within computer science, different areas of study can be distinguished:

Data structure and Algorithms. Critical research in computing is that of data structure and algorithms. For this, these last two are analyzed to solve the specific problems. In this area, mathematical analysis is elementary.
Operating systems. Operating systems are also considered one of the most critical areas. They are continuously created and updated to improve their operation, improving flaws and adapting them to new market needs.
Computer architecture. Regarding computer architecture, new computers are created faster and with better capabilities. The focus is often on specific components, such as memory, CPU, and peripherals (input and output).
Programming languages. Another elementary area in the study of computing is that of programming languages. The objective is to create new programming languages ​​that are more efficient and faster, with superior functionalities and capabilities.

History of computing

Although computers and their study have been widespread in recent decades, computer science has a long history. Ancient civilizations like the Romans and Greeks used mechanical instruments to count.

However, the first computer was created during the nineteenth century, which received the analytical engine’s name. This machine arose to develop mathematical tables. Some years later, the English government would use them to make accounts. In the late 1940s, the Mark I computer was created at Harvard University. Attempts would continue throughout the United States with government support.

When the number of designs began to increase, they began to be classified by their characteristics in generations:

  • First generation. Throughout the fifties, they were characterized by their programming through a machine language, and they were designed with vacuum tubes. They also occupied entire rooms due to their large size and were too expensive. As in the second generation, the information entered the machine through punched cards.
  • Second generation. This generation spanned the 1960s. During this generation, computers could process more data and were slightly smaller. It was during these years that communications between machines began to emerge. At the same time, the first personal computers appeared; anyway, they were very complex to use, and it was necessary to know to program.
  • Third generation. During the third generation, the production began to be in series. Computers could be managed through operating systems. Many of the techniques used in those years became standards that are used to this day.
  • Fourth generation. The appearance of microchips recognizes the fourth generation. This meant a milestone in computer science. The circuits not only began to be much smaller and faster, but they were also much cheaper. That is why production increased significantly, and many more people had access to them. This generation is also known as the Computer Revolution.

The impact on everyday life

Currently, computer technologies have allowed the re-elaboration of traditional concepts of activities; in this way, technologies have begun to transform people’s lives profoundly and all their activities:

  • Conventional mail was replaced by sending and receiving emails.
  • The artist’s art underwent modification and became the production of digital drawings.
  • Audio editing is fully digitized.
  • The printing of books was transformed into digital publishing and editing on computer media that are simultaneously marketed via the Internet, among many other processes.

That is to say, the scope of computing is valuable; the modification in the processes of the activities has already occurred and continues to advance unusually, constantly transforming our lives and originating new personal requirements that require us to be aware of these new resources. , both to know and know about their use and how to take advantage of them in pursuit of better personal and social well-being.

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